Tuesday, August 25, 2020
24. AN IMPASSE My eyes opened to a brilliant, white light. I was in a new room, a white room. The divider next to me was canvassed in long vertical blinds; over my head, the glaring lights blinded me. I was propped up on a hard, lopsided bed Ã¢â¬ a bed with rails. The pads were level and uneven. There was an irritating signaling sound some place close by. I trusted that implied I was as yet alive. Passing shouldn't be this awkward. My hands were completely bent up with clear cylinders, and something was taped over my face, without me even noticing. I lifted my hand to scam it. Ã¢â¬Å"No, you don't.Ã¢â¬ And cool fingers got my hand. Ã¢â¬Å"Edward?Ã¢â¬ I turned my head marginally, and his stunning face was simply crawls from mine, his jawline laying on the edge of my cushion. I understood again that I was alive, this time with appreciation and rapture. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Edward, I'm so sorry!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Shhhh,Ã¢â¬ he shushed me. Ã¢â¬Å"Everything's OK now.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What happened?Ã¢â¬ I was unable to recollect unmistakably, and my brain defied me as I attempted to review. Ã¢â¬Å"I was past the point of no return. I could have been too late,Ã¢â¬ he murmured, his voice tormented. Ã¢â¬Å"I was so inept, Edward. I thought he had my mom.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He deceived us all.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I need to call Charlie and my mom,Ã¢â¬ I understood through the fog. Ã¢â¬Å"Alice called them. Ren?Ã¢ ¦e is here Ã¢â¬ well, here in the medical clinic. She's grabbed a bite right now.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She's here?Ã¢â¬ I attempted to sit up, yet the turning in my mind quickened, and his hand pushed me tenderly down onto the pads. Ã¢â¬Å"She'll be back soon,Ã¢â¬ he guaranteed. Ã¢â¬Å"And you have to remain still.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But what did you tell her?Ã¢â¬ I froze. I had no enthusiasm for being mitigated. My mother was here and I was recouping from a vampire assault. Ã¢â¬Å"Why did you disclose to her I'm here?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You tumbled down two stairwells and through a window.Ã¢â¬ He stopped. Ã¢â¬Å"You need to concede, it could happen.Ã¢â¬ I moaned, and it hurt. I gazed down at my body under the sheet, the colossal irregularity that was my leg. Ã¢â¬Å"How awful am I?Ã¢â¬ I inquired. Ã¢â¬Å"You have a wrecked leg, four broken ribs, a few breaks in your skull, wounds covering every last trace of your skin, and you've lost a great deal of blood. They gave you a couple of transfusions. I didn't care for it Ã¢â¬ it made you smell all wrong for a while.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That more likely than not been a decent change for you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, I like how you smell.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How did you do it?Ã¢â¬ I asked discreetly. He comprehended what I implied without a moment's delay. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not sure.Ã¢â¬ He turned away from my pondering eyes, lifting my bandage wrapped hand from the bed and holding it tenderly in his, cautious not to upset the wire associating me to one of the screens. I stood by persistently for the rest. He murmured without restoring my look. Ã¢â¬Å"It was impossibleÃ¢â¬ ¦ to stop,Ã¢â¬ he murmured. Ã¢â¬Å"Impossible. Be that as it may, I did.Ã¢â¬ He turned upward at long last, with a large portion of a grin. Ã¢â¬Å"I must love you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Don't I taste comparable to I smell?Ã¢â¬ I grinned accordingly. That hurt my face. Ã¢â¬Å"Even better Ã¢â¬ better than I'd imagined.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry,Ã¢â¬ I was sorry. He raised his eyes to the roof. Ã¢â¬Å"Of all the things to apologize for.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What should I am sorry for?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"For practically removing yourself from me forever.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry,Ã¢â¬ I was sorry once more. Ã¢â¬Å"I know why you did it.Ã¢â¬ His voice was ameliorating. Ã¢â¬Å"It was as yet silly, obviously. You ought to have hung tight for me, you ought to have told me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You wouldn't have let me go.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ he concurred in a horrid tone, Ã¢â¬Å"I wouldn't.Ã¢â¬ Some undesirable recollections were starting to return to me. I shivered, and afterward recoiled. He was right away on edge. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella, what's wrong?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What happened to James?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"After I pulled him off you, Emmett and Jasper dealt with him.Ã¢â¬ There was a furious note of disappointment in his voice. This confounded me. Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't see Emmett and Jasper there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They needed to leave the roomÃ¢â¬ ¦ there was a great deal of blood.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But you stayed.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, I stayed.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And Alice, and CarlisleÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I said in wonder. Ã¢â¬Å"They love you, as well, you know.Ã¢â¬ A blaze of agonizing pictures from the last time I'd seen Alice helped me to remember something. Ã¢â¬Å"Did Alice see the tape?Ã¢â¬ I asked restlessly. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ another sound obscured his voice, a tone of sheer scorn. Ã¢â¬Å"She was consistently in obscurity, that is the reason she didn't remember.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know. She comprehends now.Ã¢â¬ His voice was even, yet his face was dark with wrath. I attempted to arrive at his face with my free hand, however something halted me. I looked down to see the IV pulling at my hand. Ã¢â¬Å"Ugh.Ã¢â¬ I flinched. Ã¢â¬Å"What is it?Ã¢â¬ he asked tensely Ã¢â¬ occupied, however insufficient. The dreariness didn't totally leave his eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Needles,Ã¢â¬ I clarified, turning away from the one in my grasp. I focused on a twisted roof tile and attempted to inhale profoundly regardless of the hurt in my ribs. Ã¢â¬Å"Afraid of a needle,Ã¢â¬ he murmured to himself softly, shaking his head. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, a vicious vampire, expectation on tormenting her to death, sure, no issue, she runs off to meet him. An IV, on the other handÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I feigned exacerbation. I was satisfied to find that this response, in any event, was without torment. I chose to change the subject. Ã¢â¬Å"Why are you here?Ã¢â¬ I inquired. He gazed at me, first disarray and afterward hurt contacting his eyes. His foreheads arranged as he grimaced. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you need me to leave?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No!Ã¢â¬ I dissented, sickened by the idea. Ã¢â¬Å"No, I implied, for what reason does my mother believe you're here? I have to have my story straight before she gets back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh,Ã¢â¬ he stated, and his temple smoothed go into marble. Ã¢â¬Å"I came to Phoenix to talk some detect into you, to persuade you to return to Forks.Ã¢â¬ His wide eyes were so sincere and earnest, I nearly trusted him myself. Ã¢â¬Å"You consented to see me, and you drove out to the inn where I was remaining with Carlisle and Alice Ã¢â¬ obviously I was here with parental supervision,Ã¢â¬ he embedded idealistically, Ã¢â¬Å"but you stumbled on the steps while in transit to my room andÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, you know the rest. You don't have to recall any subtleties, however; you have a decent reason to be somewhat obfuscated about the better points.Ã¢â¬ I considered it for a second. Ã¢â¬Å"There are a couple of imperfections with that story. Like no messed up windows.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not really,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Alice had somewhat a lot of fun creating proof. It's totally been dealt with convincingly Ã¢â¬ you could likely sue the lodging on the off chance that you needed to. You don't have anything to stress about,Ã¢â¬ he guaranteed, stroking my cheek with the lightest of contacts. Ã¢â¬Å"Your just occupation currently is to heal.Ã¢â¬ I wasn't so lost to the irritation or the mist of drug that I didn't react to his touch. The blaring of the screen bounced around unpredictably Ã¢â¬ presently he wasn't the one in particular who could hear my heart act up. Ã¢â¬Å"That will be embarrassing,Ã¢â¬ I murmured to myself. He laughed, and a theoretical look came into his eye. Ã¢â¬Å"Hmm, I wonderÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He inclined in gradually; the blaring commotion quickened uncontrollably before his lips even contacted me. However, when they did, however with the most delicate of weight, the blaring halted through and through. He pulled back suddenly, his on edge articulation going to alleviation as the screen detailed the restarting of my heart. Ã¢â¬Å"It appears that I will must be much more cautious with you than usual.Ã¢â¬ He glared. Ã¢â¬Å"I was not completed the process of kissing you,Ã¢â¬ I grumbled. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't make me come over there.Ã¢â¬ He smiled, and twisted to squeeze his lips softly to mine. The screen went wild. Yet, at that point his lips were rigid. He pulled away. Ã¢â¬Å"I think I hear your mother,Ã¢â¬ he stated, smiling once more. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't leave me,Ã¢â¬ I cried, an unreasonable flood of frenzy flooding through me. I was unable to release him Ã¢â¬ he may vanish from me once more. He read the dread in my eyes for a brief second. Ã¢â¬Å"I won't,Ã¢â¬ he guaranteed gravely, and afterward he grinned. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll take a nap.Ã¢â¬ He moved from the hard plastic seat close by to the turquoise artificial cowhide chair at the foot of my bed, inclining it right back, and shutting his eyes. He was totally still. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't neglect to breathe,Ã¢â¬ I murmured snidely. He took a full breath, his eyes despite everything shut. I could hear my mom now. She was conversing with somebody, possibly a medical attendant, and she sounded drained and upset. I needed to leap out of the bed and hurry to her, to quiet her, guarantee that everything was fine. In any case, I wasn't in any kind of shape for hopping, so I stood by eagerly. The entryway opened a break, and she looked through. Ã¢â¬Å"Mom!Ã¢â¬ I murmured, my voice brimming with adoration and alleviation. She took in Edward's despite everything structure on the chair, and pussyfooted to my bedside. Ã¢â¬Å"He never leaves, does he?Ã¢â¬ she murmured to herself. Ã¢â¬Å"Mom, I'm so happy to see you!Ã¢â¬ She twisted down to embrace me delicately, and I felt warm tears falling on my cheeks. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella, I was so upset!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry, Mom. In any case, everything's fine presently, it's okay,Ã¢â¬ I console her. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm only happy to at last observe your eyes open.Ã¢â¬ She sat on the edge of my bed. I abruptly acknowledged I didn't have any thought when it was. Ã¢â¬Å"How long have they been closed?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's Friday, hon, you've been out for a while.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Friday?Ã¢â¬ I was stunned. I attempted to recall what day it had been whenÃ¢â¬ ¦ however I would not like to think about that. Ã¢â¬Å"They
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The Status Of The Arabic Language Arabic is one of the across the board communicated in dialects among Arab speakers, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa and its considered the focal language of Semitic dialects, for example, Hebrew and Aramaic dialects (Zeina, 2008). Arabic is spoken by in excess of 280 million individuals as a first language and by 250 million as a subsequent language. Despite the various assortments, there are three essential Arabics. To put it unmistakably, there are three kinds of Arabic: the traditional language, the advanced standard language and conversational language (Zeina, 2008, Gonzalo, 2005). The first is the language of the Holy Quran which is utilized by every Muslim individuals who play out their petitions or read the Holy Quran whether they comprehend what they read or not (Zeina, 2008). With respect to the Modern Standard Arabic, it was gotten from the Classical Arabic and it is generally utilized in formal circumstances, for example, schools, colleges, courts, governm ent and the media. With respect to last one, it is significantly utilized in every day life circumstances and exercises among individuals. Arabic language is not quite the same as different dialects; it has its very own arrangement (Back Walter Tim, 2004). It comprises of 28 letters, 25 of them are consonant letters and the other three are vowels (Hattami, 2010). There isn't capital letters and little letters. In addition, it has a one of a kind and distinctive style since it begins from option to left in both perusing and composing. (Zeina, 2008). The connection among Arabic and different dialects, for example, Hebrew, English, Spanish, Sicilian, and other European dialects is a solid related one. Usually dialects acquire some lexical things from each other. Arabic has obtained numerous words from English and different dialects and different dialects have done likewise too (wajih, 1991). At the end of the day, Arabic has acquired words from numerous dialects, including Hebrew, Persian and Syriac in early hundreds of years, Turkish in medieval occasions and contemporary European dialects in present day times. To put it plainly, the Arabic language is a typical language among Arab speakers and its underlying foundations have been taken from the Holy Quran which is viewed as the wellspring of every single artistic work and verse in the Arab world and all etymologists allude to it when they scan for certain clarifications of certain words and implications. Also, Arabic with its distinctive composing framework and assortments, it has a genuine and close contact to different dialects, particularly English. In this composed task, I will be quickly addressing certain focuses. Right off the bat, the portrayal of vowels and consonants found in the Arabic and English dialects, and the examination between them. Furthermore, a few issues that students of the Arabic language may have in learning English. Notwithstanding the likenesses between the consonantal frameworks of English and Arabic, there are a few contrasts in certain viewpoints. For instance, the Arabic language has uvular sounds Ghain/, Qaaf,/, and Khaa/, the pharyngeal sounds Ain/and Haa/(Harakat, 1998), and unequivocal sounds two plosives,/and/, and two fricatives,/and/(Al-Muhtaseb et al., 2000; Ouni et al., 2005; Selouania and Caelen, 1998). These sounds really give the Arabic language its own particular property. Since every language has its own framework, as referenced above, Arabic and English offer regular consonant sounds and some limited language sounds.(Eid, 2006). 1-Arabic consonant sounds The Arabic language has some consonant sounds that are not existed in the English language. Truth be told, there are 28 consonants in Arabic, eight stops, thirteen fricatives, one affricate, two nasals, two fluids and two floats (Mousa M. Amayreh, 2003). The accompanying table shows the spot, way, and voicing of Arabic consonants. Consonant Chart for Arabic 2-English consonant sounds In English phonetics we portray consonants as indicated by three standards: spot of enunciation, way of verbalization and voicing. There are 25 consonants in English, six stops, nine fricatives, two affricates, three nasals, two skims, and two fluids. (Eid, 2006). The accompanying table outlines the spot, way, and voicing of English consonants. Consonant Chart for English 3-Comparison of English and Arabic consonants This part is an examination among English and Arabic consonants. A few tables and different delineations are given beneath: 3.1 Stops In light of the tables over, one can unmistakably say that there are eight plosives in Arabic [ b,d,t,k,d,t,q,?] while there are six plosives in English [ ph,b,t,k,d,g]. The English language does not have the reciprocals of the Arabic emphatics [dÃ£ËÃ¢ ¸, tÃ£ËÃ¢ · ], the uvular [qÃ£â¢Ã¢â¬Å¡] and the glottal stop [?Ã£â¢Ã¢â¬ ¡]. Then again, the Arabic language likewise comes up short on certain reciprocals of the English plosives [ph, g]. The consequence of such distinction brings about certain troubles for understudies and speakers. As we will see later on, the troubles that face Arab students towards articulating vowels and consonants. The accompanying table sums up the contrast among Arabic and English plosives with IPA images. 3.2 Fricatives The English language has nine fricatives in the labio-denteal interdental, dento-alveolar and glottal territories for example a large portion of its fricatives are in the front portion of the vocal tract, while the Arabic language has thirteen extending from the labiodental to the glottal zones. Notwithstanding that, it likewise has portions of uvular [ xÃ£ËÃ¢ ®, ÃËÃ¢ ¹] and pharyngeal fricatives [hÃ£ËÃ¢ , ÃËÃ¢ ¹] just as two vehement ones (Eid, 2006). The accompanying table sums up the contrast among Arabic and English fricatives with IPA images. 3.3 Affricates There are two essential affricates in English a voiceless post-alveolar affricate [th] and a voiced post-alveolar affricate [d3] while Arabic has just a single affricate, a voiced post-alveolar one [d3] (Hattami, 2010). In any case, some Arabic tongues, for example, the Iraqi one, have [th] sound and this enables Iraqi students to express words containing such stable appropriately. (Andrzej Rouag, 1993, Hattami, 2010). 3.4 Nasals The English language has three nasal sounds [m,n,g] while Arabic has just two [m,n ] (Hattami, 2010). That is, the Arabic language does not have the [g] sound which is viewed as an allophone of [n] before velar and uvular stops, as in: English and Arabic have the equivalent [m] and this doesnt cause issues. Then again, [n] is alveolar in English while it is dental in Arabic. English and Arabic nasal sounds 3.5 Approximants There are three contrasts between the approximants of Arabic and English. To begin with, English has the nasal sound [g] while it isn't found in the Arabic language. Second, [r] in Arabic doesn't follow the approximants yet the un-supported or R-sound (Odisho, 2003b). Third, the English approximant [r] messes up Arab students. 3.6 Laterals There is just a single sidelong solid in English [l] while the Arabic language has two: non-determined one [l] and unequivocal one [L] (Andrzej Rouag, 1993, Hattami, 2010), as in: 3.7 Flab The phonemic arrangement of English language doesn't have the alleged fold sound. Notwithstanding, the arrangement of the Arabic language might be a wellspring of replacements for the English/r/s. (Andrzej Rouag, 1993, Hattami, 2010) 4. Consonantal issues Arab students face in learning English Since every language has a sound framework and paying little mind to the likenesses between these dialects, there, without a doubt, must be a few contrasts which mess up students of dialects. In this manner, when the Arab students are eager to become familiar with the English language, they may commit oblivious errors coming about because of either the impedance of the two dialects or ignorance of the sound frameworks of every language or the inexistence of specific sounds. (Hattami, 2010) A rundown of such issues is sketched out underneath: /p/as expressed prior, English has the consonant suctioned sound/p/, and/b/, while there is just/b//ÃËÃ¢ ¨/in Arabic. In the outcome, Arab students will most likely be unable to separate between these two sounds and commit errors while articulating them and supplant/b/in supplant of/p/. For example,/picture//bicture/. /g/the standard Arabic doesn't consider/g/as a fixed sound in its sound framework, yet in some Arabic vernaculars, this sound is viewed as, for example, the Egyptian tongue. Generally, all Arab students of English face trouble in separating among them, and they substitute the Arabic/k/for the English/g/. For instance,/game//kame/. /tÃ£ ¢Ã«â Ã¢ «/this sound isn't likewise existed in the sound arrangement of standard Arabic. Be that as it may, it very well may be found in some Arabic tongues, for example, the Iraqi vernacular. The counter-consonant in standard Arabic is/k/. Bedouin students of English may have issues in the sound/tÃ£ ¢Ã«â Ã¢ «/and they may will in general streamline this sound to/Ã ¢Ã«â Ã¢ «/.Consequently, this outcomes in wrong way to express/tÃ£ ¢Ã«â Ã¢ «/. For instance, seat shair. /Ãâ Ã¢ ·/at times, the rearrangements of/dÃ£Å¡Ã¢â¬â¢/to/Ãâ Ã¢ ·/is additionally found. Some Arabic vernaculars acknowledge this sound, for example, Syrian and Lebanese ones. Speakers may improve/to/, for example,/. /Ãâ¦ Ã /doesnt exist in Arabic by any stretch of the imagination, in English, it has a limitation on event: it doesnt happen at first. It just happens medially lastly. For instance, finger and sing. Therefore, an Arab understudy who learns English is firmly molded by the setting in which allophone/Ãâ¦ Ã /happens and will in general addition the molding/k g/, for example, Singing - Think . End I have introduced a short correlation between the consonant frameworks of English and Arabic. I have additionally recorded a few issues in articulating singular consonants looked by Arabic speakers and students of English. As indicated by (Hattami, 2010), the healing arrangement can be set on educators. Instructors must be completely mindful of the two sound frameworks and afterward plan therapeutic bores and train understudies to maintain a strategic distance from such issues in
Sunday, August 9, 2020
The History of Orthorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Diagnosis Print What Is Orthorexia Nervosa? By Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS facebook twitter linkedin Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, is a certified eating disorders expert and clinical psychologist who provides cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. Learn about our editorial policy Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on February 24, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on February 22, 2019 JGI/Jamie Grill, Blend Images, Getty Images More in Eating Disorders Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Awareness and Prevention Orthorexia is not recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) as an official eating disorder. It remains a proposed diagnosis that is attracting increased interest by researchers, treatment professionals, bloggers, and the public, especially as a desire for healthy food has become more mainstream. Orthorexia is not merely veganism, a gluten-free diet, or a general appreciation for healthy eating. According to Dr. Stephen Bratman, the doctor who coined the term in 1996 to describe the obsession with healthy eating he had seen in several of his patients, âPeople can adhere to just about any theory of healthy eating without having an eating disorder (with the only caveat that such a diet must provide adequate nutrients).â Orthorexia commonly begins as an âexuberantâ interest in healthy eating that escalates over time. What was originally a choice becomes a compulsion and the individual can no longer choose to relax their own rules. Eventually, the personâs restrictive eating starts to negatively impact both their health and social and occupational functioning; eating the right foods becomes increasingly important and squeezes out other pursuits. A personâs self-esteem becomes very closely tied to their adherence to their selected diet. Consequently, any deviation from the diet typically causes extreme feelings of guilt and shame. Dr. Bratman observes the irony of the pursuit of healthy eating backfiring and becoming incredibly unhealthy. History At the time he coined the term, Dr. Bratman was working in alternative medicine. Many âhealthyâ diets were touted as alternatives to medications, but Dr. Bratman began to notice significant costs to this approach. These included an inability to share food with others; an inability to eat foods previously enjoyed; an identity wrapped up in food; and guilt, shame, and fear associated with straying from the diet. Dr. Bratman discerned that for some patients it would be more prudent to relax about their eating than to improve or further restrict their diet. As a form of âtease therapy,â Dr. Bratman decided to invent a disorder his patients could focus on being cured of. He hired a Greek scholar to help him choose the name. The term âorthorexia nervosaâ was coined to mean an obsession with eating the right food; âortho,â meaning right, âorexia,â meaning hunger, and ânervosaâ meaning fixation or obsession. He was making an analogy to anorexia nervosa. Dr. Bratman said he originally thought of orthorexia as a way to encourage his patients to loosen their own eating rules, rather than a serious diagnosis. He published the term in 1997 Yoga Journal article â" from there it was quickly taken up by popular magazines. Dr. Bratman himself did not take it seriously. It was not until after the publication of a humorous book on the subject that he learned that he had âtapped into something bigger.â He learned that people were dying from the condition. Proposed Risk Factors Dr. Bratman (2016, IAEDP) described what he believes are several risk factors for orthorexia: adoption of a highly restrictive dietary theoryparents who place undue importance on healthy foodchildhood illness involving diet and/or digestive issuesmedical problems that canât be addressed by medical sciencetraits of perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and extremismfear of disease Proposed Diagnostic Criteria Orthorexia nervosa was the subject of an Italian study in 2004, which gave further credibility to the condition. In 2014, Jordan Younger, a popular blogger discussed having suffered from orthorexia. At this point, Dr. Bratman decided to study and write about the condition he had first recognized. It is important to note that there are no reliable studies on the prevalence of orthorexia nervosa. There are, however, according to Bratman and Dunn, âconvincing case studies and broad anecdotal evidence to conclude that sufficient evidence exists to pursue whether [orthorexia nervosa] is a distinct condition.â In a 2016 paper in the journal Eating Behaviors, Dr. Bratman co-authored with Thom Dunn, Ph.D. they propose the following diagnostic criteria. Criteria A All of the following: Compulsive behavior and/or preoccupation with a restrictive diet to promote optimum healthViolation of self-imposed dietary rules causes exaggerated fear of disease, sense of personal impurity, and/or negative physical sensations, anxiety, and shameDietary restriction increases over time and may come to include the elimination of food groups and cleanses. Weight loss commonly occurs but the desire to lose weight is not the focus. Criteria B Any of the following: Malnutrition, severe weight loss, or other medical consequences from a restricted dietIntrapersonal distress or impairment of social, academic or occupational functioning due to beliefs or behaviors about healthy dietSelf-worth, identity, and body image unduly dependent on compliance with ones âhealthyâ diet Other Features and Medical Risks Dr. Bratman reported that the condition of orthorexia has already shown signs of evolution since he first conceived of it. He noted that exercise is more commonly a part of it than it was in the 1990s. He also reported that incorporating low-calorie foods has also become a bigger part of the healthy eating associated with orthorexia. In cases where individuals pursue both purity and thinness, there may be an overlap between anorexia nervosa and orthorexia nervosa. Orthorexia may also, on occasions, be a disguise for anorexia by individuals presenting a more socially acceptable way of staying thin. Orthorexia nervosa may also cross over with bulimia nervosa and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID). Belief System of Orthorexia Although the behaviors (dietary restriction) and consequences (weight loss, malnutrition, bingeing and/or purging) associated with orthorexia nervosa may look similar to anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, the main difference is in the content of the belief system. Patients with orthorexia primarily think about ideal health, physical purity, enhanced fitness, and avoiding disease. They restrict foods perceived as unhealthy and embrace certain âsuperfoodsâ perceived as providing special health benefits according to their belief system about what constitutes healthy food. In contrast, patients with anorexia consciously focus on weight and restrict foods primarily based on calories. There are other differences as well. People are usually ashamed of their anorexia and attempt to hide it, but persons with orthorexia may actively attempt to persuade others to follow the same health beliefs. Those with anorexia nervosa often forego meals; people with orthorexia typically do not (unless they are intentionally âcleansingâ). Finally, when a person with anorexia is in treatment, they have no particular objection to being fed with Ensure or Boost except regarding the calories, whereas a person with orthorexia would object to the chemicals in those supplements. These distinctions in beliefs may be important. Dr. Bratman observed that treatment professionalsâ misunderstanding of the concerns of someone with orthorexia may lead to treatment failure. Much to Be Learned Since orthorexia is only a proposed diagnosis, there is a great deal we do not know. For example, we do not know its relationship to the existing eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and ARFID. Nor do we know its relationship to anxiety disorders. Research is needed to refine the diagnosis, determine prevalence rates, identify risk factors, and develop treatments. An important first step is developing an assessment tool; a 100-question survey is in development to assess and diagnose orthorexia. One thing we do know is that, because it can cause malnutrition, orthorexia nervosa may produce any of the medical problems associated with anorexia nervosa including loss of menses, osteoporosis, and heart failure. Although treatments have not been specifically validated for orthorexia, clinicians, and Dr. Bratman reported that treatment that challenges the dietary theory and builds more flexible eating have been successful in the treatment of orthorexia. Seeking Help If you or a loved one shows signs of orthorexia, please seek help from an eating disorder treatment professional. As with other eating disorders, early intervention increases the chance of a complete recovery and minimizes negative consequences. If you dont have a doctor who specializes in eating disorders, speak with your primary healthcare professional firstâ"he/she can most likely refer you to a specialized doctor. Be sure to discuss behaviors, day-to-day issues, and anything else related to your eating and well-being with your doctor. Orthorexia Discussion Guide Get our printable guide for your next doctors appointment to help you ask the right questions. Download PDF Oftentimes, people with eating disorders cannot recognize the power the condition has over themâ"they may not even be inclined to speak with a doctor at all. If this is the case for you or a loved one, a doctors visit (and hopefully a discussion with a doctor) is a great first step. From there, hopefully, intervention in the form of realistic treatment options can progress. 4 Steps for Eating Disorder Recovery
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Introduction: Pollution is when a harmful or poisonous gas is emitted in the presence of air that can be very harmful to the environment even for humans, especially when we donÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything . We might think that pollution is not really a problem in the world but it is one major problem and some countries are suffering from it now. There are many ways that we can stop pollution about but we just donÃ¢â¬â¢t really take matter of it, if people will just observe how pollution is affecting the environment they might do something about it. There are many types of Pollutions there are, Water, Land, Air , etc but Air pollution is the main topic in this paper. These days, there are many countries that are suffering from Air Pollution, thereÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(A Review of Air Pollution Control in Beijing: 1998-2013.) The air pollution in Beijing causes their neighboring countries experience smog covering some part of their country. Also there is a new problem of their pollut ion problem which is the urbanization which people demands different new manufacture to be develop. Lots of different cars are being developed that are now record for 17 millions new cars on the road in the year of 2014. The rapid urbanization growth increases lot of demands and new industries. Chemical Reaction: The main causes to build pollution are Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Particulates and Ammonia. In Beijing the chemical reaction they have is Sulfur Dioxide, Ozone, and Carbon Monoxide. One of the chemical reaction of the air pollution in Beijing, is Sulfur Dioxide and this is one the reason because of their coal industry. Sulfur dioxide can cause people to have a hard time breathing if you inhaled too much. Second one is Ozone is a colourless gas that creates smog, this chemical can make experience some respiratory problem. The other one is Carbon Monoxide and this one is caused by vehicles. It is also an odorless and colorless gas but this gas is very dangerous for human. It can cause your nervous system and heart oxygen to workShow MoreRelatedAir Pollution Essay1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespremature deaths caused each year due to air pollution in cities across the worldÃ¢â¬ (Air Pollution). Every day the average person inhales about 20,000 liters of contaminated air, Such as carbon dioxide and smog (Brimblecombe). These pollutants are released throughout the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere in concentrations that are high enough to cause health problems, which leads to one of the main problems today, and that would be air pollution (Socha). The main cause of air pollution is all of the toxic chemicals thatRead MoreAir Pollution Essay1322 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAll living things use air and it must be clean to maintain life on earth. When air pollution becomes the subject, what do you think about? Smog, acid rain, and other forms of outdoor pollution are the common things people think about. Air pollution can also exist indoors as in closed ventilated areas that we surround. This makes the air that we breathe indoors inescapable and the pollution exist both indoor and outdoor. For example, hair spray usage indoor is polluting the air inside because of theRead MoreEssay On Air Pollution1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLong, wrote an opinion piece published in The New York Times called, Where Theres Smoke, Theres Pollution, addressing the effects of vessels on the environment. He is arguing against the way The Environmental Protection Agency and other environmental health organizations are handling the increase of shipping pollution and the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s health and safety. People assume the main cause of air pollution are automobiles or manufactures, however, international trade by cargo ships has expanded more thanRead MoreEssay On Air Pollution970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesburning of fossil fuels is causing several health and environmental issues. The first issue is air pollution. As many of you already know, burning fossil fuels emits several air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and the most common pollutant, carbon dioxide. These harmful gases are toxic to both the environment and public health. Another issue associated with air pollution is acid rain. Acid rain is formed when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides mix with water, oxygenRead MoreEssay On Air Pollution1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Global Article Analysis 3: Air Pollution There are multiple environmental issues that exist and are constantly harming the planet. Many of these issues have effects that are unique to certain countries, or even effects that are similar to other countries. Overall, these issues can be similar or dissimilar in multiple aspects, such as the biological, physical, and cultural perspectives. The causes and effects, problem severity, citizen perceptions, and proposed solutions and efforts to repair theseRead MoreAir Pollution Essay1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAir pollution can be described as any contaminate of the atmosphere that disturbs the natural composition and chemistry of the air. This can be in the form of particulate matter such as dust, or excessive gases like carbon dioxide or other vapors. These pollutants can occur naturally, or are the product of human activities. The air that we breathe is filled with substances that are hazardous to our health. Some contaminates can be noticed because of an odor, where some cannot because they are odorlessRead MoreAir Pollution Essay958 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthink of air pollution, they most immediately picture heavy smog drifting over cities and industrial plants. This is the first and most evident form of air pollution. To better understand the subject, we need to define the term air pollution. Air pollution is the presence in or introduction into the air of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects. These substances linger and cause many adverse problems. Humans and other living creations rely on the atmosphere for reparation. When air qualityRead MoreAir Pollution essay910 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAir pollution has become a major problem in the United States. The agricultural industry must help maintain air quality. By doing that the United States has started trying to make machines that will help reduce the pollution in the air which will help the environment. One way the United States has tried stopping air pollution and that is to create a solar powered machine which decreases air pollution. But also there are some ways that the people of the United States can help stop air pollution. Read MoreEssay On Air Pollution847 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction From my studying in this unit, I understand that air pollution transpires in various patterns, however, it can generally be thought of as gaseous and particulate contaminants that are existing in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere. Chemicals discharged into the air that has a direct impact on the environment are called primary pollutants. These primary pollutants sometimes react with other chemicals in the air to produce secondary pollutants. Air pollution has become a very high-priced environmental predicamentRead MoreAir Pollution Essay1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAir Pollution in the US From North to South, East to West, New York to Ohio, the issue of air pollution and climate change has been under discussion in the last sixty years and how it has changed the climate terrain in the United States. Air pollution can be dated to October 1948, the Donora Pa for that razed almost half of the town where 14000 residents were rendered homeless and started to experience severe respiratory and cardiovascular problems. During this time, breathing became a major issue
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Everyone desires to be unique in their own way, most people especially students possess an occupational wish immediately they join the early stages of education. Some would like to be identified with certain jobs, hobbies, affiliating groups or even movies. This paper majorly illustrates my interested job as the icon of my choice; the icons have been selected from the medical field in relation to the eye. Each of the icon is referring to an eye specialist hence the theme is common. Since I am interested in becoming an optometrist, I have decided to choose other two related jobs dealing in eye disorders, these are optician and ophthalmologist. Since I desire a profession dealing in eye, the three icons I have mentioned would be of great relevance to me in my entire professional life. In the succeeding paragraphs, the three icons have been explained inÃ three ways, that is what they are and what they deal in, why they represent me what and why they mean something tome and how they h ave improved my life.Ã The paper will also explain how I intend to become or embrace the icons. OPTOMETRIST This is a profession in health care that is concerned with the eye and its related structures. It deals in visual system, information on vision processing and vision in humans as well. Optometrists are qualified to treat and diagnose eye diseases like glaucoma and even infections. The eye and its structures and the mechanisms involved has captivated scientists and the general public since the ancient times, therefore many people have been involved in it and this is my point of interest. Many patients are usually more concerned with eye related disorders than other diseases; the knowledge that one may experience an eye problem has an upsetting effect on the psychology of an individual, the same effect even spread to economy and social life. This makes the profession a point of interest to me as I would prefer helping and interacting with such individuals. Many people with visual problems need vital assistance with the activities of their daily living and are usually unable to gain ful l employment that they initially possessed before they developed the defect. It therefore results into terrible challenges to the victims. It would be my interest in the future to assist the eye disorder victims in maintaining of ocular health and correcting their eye problems that may limit their vision and contribute deeply to the ability to appreciate longer lifespan that the medicine can allow. This profession is therefore very vital due to the quality that vision has in life, hence many optometrists consider their job very rewarding, and that is why I intend to be one. As such optometry is tied to the vision science, optics and optical assistance, optical instruments of imaging techniques among other eye care professions. The nature of work in optometry includes examining peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s eye in order to diagnose the detected vision problems. These problems may include shortsightedness and long-sightedness, color perception and ability to coordinate and focus the eyes; they may prescribe eyeglasses or contact lenses or even provide treatment like vision therapy and low visual rehabilitation. Optometrists may also test for glaucoma and other eye disorders and even diagnose those conditions caused by systemic diseases such as high blood pressure and diabetes. They also prescribe medication to treat vision disorders or eye problem and provide both pre operative and postoperative care to cataract victims. Optometrists may also specialize in fields like contact lenses, pediatrics, and geriatrics or vision therapy. This has resulted in the formation of professional groups depending on the area of specialization and still they remain practitioners. For instance, some may specialize in developing ways of protecting workerÃ¢â¬â¢s eye from job related diseases, occupational vision while others may focus on sports vision, ocular diseases, head trauma and special testing. Some even teach optometry, perform research and consult at the same time. This is a major reaso n why I am interested in the profession and is my major icon. To become an optometrist, a doctor of optometry degree is needed and this requires a completion of a four year degree program in the accredited school of optometry. This is usually a competitive program which admits very few candidates and therefore commitment is necessary and that is what I advocate. Since the requirement for admission include Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology which I possess a great background in, I therefore believe I am capable of practicing the profession. This icon therefore means life to me and represents me in that I possess what it takes to be one, it will therefore improve my life in the actualization stage as I help others achieve their goals and mission. OPHTHALMOLOGIST This is a specialist who deals with medical and surgical eye problems. This profession is one of the branches in medicine that deal in the physiology, anatomy and diseases of the eye. As a discipline, ophthalmology applies to animal eye as well; this broadens the practice, since the distinctions in human practice are minor and related mainly to the differences in prevalence or anatomy and not differences in the disease processes. Ophthalmologist is therefore a medical doctor specialized in vision care and the eye. They are trained to provide a full spectrum of the eye care, prescribing contact lenses and glasses to delicate and complex eye surgery. They are sometimes involved in the eye research as well. This makes the profession my point of interest. This profession requires a four year training and one year internship which should be hospital based. They are trained in all aspects of eye care and prevention, medical and surgery treatment of the conditions of the eye including diagn osis of the same. Some of the specific areas of training include; cornea and the external disorders, glaucoma, ophthalmic pathology, Neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology and vitriol retinal diseases. Both the diagnosis and management of these diseases are intensively learnt with several practical demonstrations like transplantation involved in the training. Practitioners may specialize in different field such as corneal diseases, glaucoma, retina and vitreous diseases, pediatric eye problems and plastic surgery. This is a major contribution of this profession to be my preference icon, with several options to specialize, one can easily identify what he or she can perform best and since it is geared towards assisting people which is my aim in life, I prefer it to other professions. Optometrists and family doctors are known to often refer the patients experiencing serious eye problems to ophthalmologists due to their extensive training as they can always link eye problems to ot her diseases for instance, they are usually he first to identify and detect brain tumor, multiple sclerosis and even diabetes. Ophthalmologists usually use a variety of different instrument such as ophthalmoscopes, which enables easy visualization of the inner part of the eye. They can then prescribe contact lenses, medicine and eye glasses or even recommend eye exercises and where required with urgency, they perform surgery. For this to take place, extensive training after high school for four years in medical school is necessary. This means a lot to me as I aspire to become an eye specialist, therefore in reference to this, I prefer the icon, it would improve my life as I assist the victims as I actualize my professional life. OPTICIAN This is a person who deals in optical devises. A medical practitioner trained on filling the prescriptions for the correction of the eye in the field of medicine. Opticians also make optical devices and are also known as dispensing optician. They determine the specifications of different ophthalmic appliances that gives necessary corrections to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s eyesight. Some opticians also manufacture lenses to their own stipulations and design spectacle frames and some other devices. Opticians work in a variety of settings like as independent or joint practice, retail stores or hospital eye care centers. This is not always the case as opticians need to get registered in order to meet the set standards of practice. They also commit to an ongoing education and hold professional liability if any arises. They usually consult a client in order to design optical appliances or ophthalmic to best meet their needs. Information is usually gathered from the patients on the eye and the f acial features. In proving the service, opticians are expected to use variety of instrument which usually ranges from simple devices of measuring to complex examination instrument. This is my preference icon as it is very marketable and always needed by the victims. Due to the increasing demand for contact lenses and glasses, the job growth is proportionate for dispensing opticians. This growth creates more demand for corrective lenses by those who need regular vision care hence making the profession lucrative and profitable. Therefore apart from assisting others, there is also a lot to learn and earn from the profession, for that reason, this icon means a lot to my life and I believe it will not only improve my life but also take me to the actualization stage of life. Some other things that I love with the icon is the kind of activities that one involve themselves in. such activities as taking clientÃ¢â¬â¢s facial measurement, assisting a client to sense the type of most appropri ate glasses, keeping clientÃ¢â¬â¢s records up to date, working together with the insurance groups to maximize the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits and even customizing the glasses fit to suit the face of the client. Such activities mean a lot to me and therefore justify my love for the profession. As s result of the nature of the work that opticians do in their daily lives, a lot of experience is needed in mathematics especially in algebra and geometry, Physics, anatomy and quality drawing. One also requires very good interpersonal communication skills as they get to interact with many people in their service delivery. For jobs like this, one do not need to wait for employment but can set up his or her own premise and begin, that is one of the reasons why I admire the profession and tops my list in the icons. In summary, the above icons actually represent me as they are what I want to become. In the medical profession, I prefer to assist those with poor vision and bring the whole world back to them. The three icons also mean life to me and improves my life as each day, I work extra hard to achieve my ambition of becoming one. The requirements of each leave me with no option but to commit myself to work. I would like to assist people gain their sight where necessary. I believe in the Icons as they inspire me to work hard and therefore they change my life in a positive way. I also believe that apart from helping people, I can also earn a living with them. Therefore they are all I need in life, my inspiration and what I want to become.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
All around the world the roles of the individual and of society are completely abstract. As the world changes and develops, the roles of the individual and society change to meet the needs of the people. VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s Candide which involves France during the Age of Enlightment Marx EngelsÃ¢â¬â¢ Communist Manifesto which involves Germany around 1848 both discuss the roles of the individual and of society in different ways. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of the Individual in Candide or any similar topic only for you Order Now In both pieces of literature what is expected of the individuals and of society is very different from what is presently happening. The Communist Manifesto discusses human nature and social class while Voltaire discusses the flaws of society and the realities that not everything is for the best. In Communist Manifesto, the role of an individual is to be an equal and work towards the greater good of society and the role of society is to provide equality for all people. However in Candide, the role of an individual is to be an individual while the role of society is based upon the society you are living in. The role of the individual according to Marx and Engels is to be an equal with everyone else in society. The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all other proletarian parties: Formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariatÃ¢â¬ (Communist Manifesto 13) The Bourgeois are the 0. 1% of the population that owns the means of production and The Proletariat are laborers who are 99. 9% of the population. Carl Marx state s here that the goal of Communism is equality for all. If you overthrow the Bourgeois it insures that power will be balanced because its 99. 9% in control now instead itÃ¢â¬â¢s 0. 1% in control. Marx describes his distaste for how everyone in society is being manipulated by the small percentage in control. Marx goes on to say that Ã¢â¬Å"The Bourgeoisie has subjected the country to the rules of the towns. It has created enormous cities, has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural and has thus rescued a considerable part of the population for the idiocy of rural lifeÃ¢â¬ (Communist Manifesto 7) People are being control in a majority of their daily routines and being an individual is not something truly supported by the Bourgeoisie. Ã¢â¬Å"You say individuality vanishes. You must therefore confess that by Ã¢â¬Å"individualÃ¢â¬ you mean no other person than the bourgeois, than the middle-class owner of propertyÃ¢â¬ (The Communist Manifesto 16) The idea of communism is to encourage people to actually be individuals while being an active member of society. Although the role of the individual are made very clear by Marx they fail due the ideals of human nature. It is said that the human nature can be considered the downfall of communism. Communism as proposed should be extremely successful but due to human nature there is no way for communist success. The success declines as soon as it starts because people lose motivation. People have no motivation to work as hard as they possibly can because everyone is economically equal. This is a flaw of the communist society as opposed to capitalism. Marx wants people to work as an autonomous collective to gain power and take it away from capitalism however, people are only invested in something that benefits them, and communism relies on an Ã¢â¬Å"all for one, one for all attitudes. According to The Communist Manifesto. the role of society is to provide equality for all people. As stated Ã¢â¬Å"In bourgeois society, living labor is but a mean to increase labor. In communist society accumulated labor is but a means to widen, to enrich, to promote the existence of the laborerÃ¢â¬ (The Communist Manifesto 15) Marx describes a comparison between the society currently and what MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes society will be. Individuals are promised so much more in a Communist society. The difference between the idea of increasing labor and widening labor although minuscule provides hope for the people who are sick of their current society. In communist society, the present dominates the past. In bourgeois society, capital is independent and has individuality while the living person is dependent and has no individualityÃ¢â¬ (The Communist Manifesto 15). This shows how people, while working toward the greater good have their own individuality under communist society. In a Communist Society although people are allowed to be unique they are all considered equal no matter what. In Candide the role of an individual is to be an individual. Voltaire, throughout the skill of repetition exploits how people behave. He describes for instance how everyone feels someone is better off than they are. Voltaire uses CandideÃ¢â¬â¢s journeys to portray the human assumption that the grass is always greener on the other side. Now even though most people are not pleased with how their lives are currently, they are esteemed individuals. Individuals work for the benefits of themselves as they cultivate their farms and work hard to make sure their families are well fed and stable. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËI have only twenty acres of landÃ¢â¬â¢ replied the Turk, Ã¢â¬Ëwhich my children and I cultivate. Our work keeps us free of three great evils: boredom, vice and povertyÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Candide 112). This shows how in Candide, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s individuals work hard on their own to make something out of themselves. According to Voltaire in Candide the role of society clearly depends on what kind of society you are currently living in. Societies, according to Voltaire had many flaws. As Candide comes to the land of Eldurado, we are shown an almost flawless society. Ã¢â¬Å"Candide asked to see the law courts, he was told that there were none, that lawsuits were unknown. He asked if there were prisons; the answer was no. Ã¢â¬ (Candide 64) In this nearly flawless society all men are free and the king is the complete opposite of a tyrant. Ã¢â¬Å"I know my country doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t amount to much, but when man is fairly well of somewhere, he ought to stay there. I certainly have no right to prevent foreigners from leaving: that kind of tyranny is sanctioned by neither our customs nor our lawsÃ¢â¬ (Candide 66). Another society Candide discusses is Paris. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been in Paris: itÃ¢â¬â¢s a mixture of everything found in all the provinces. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a chaos, a restless throng in which everyone is looking for pleasure and hardly anyone finds it, or at least thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how it seemed to meÃ¢â¬ (Candide 75) In Paris it seems that this society has no partake in itÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens lifestyle. The individuals yearn for what society has to offer them. Voltaire uses satire to take aim at the military, religion, and societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ shallowness to disprove PanglossÃ¢â¬â¢ theory that Ã¢â¬Å"all is for the bestÃ¢â¬ . The world that we live in is not the best of all possible worlds. How to cite The Role of the Individual in Candide, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Explain why European Union law takes precedence over domestic law in the United Kingdom? Answer: Introduction The supremacy of the laws if the European Union can be considered as a principle where the laws that is made together by the member states of the European Union would prevail in cases where there lies any conflict with the laws of the European Union and the domestic laws of the country (Hartley, 2005). Hence, the national courts should take into account the European Union laws and that law would be taken into account. This legal doctrine had emerged from the European Court of Justice and can be considered as a result of a number of decisions. Legal decisions supporting the European Union Laws There were a number of case decisions that supported and favored the European Union laws as compared to the domestic laws. In the case of R v Secretary of State for Transport (R v Secretary of State for Transport, Ex p Factortame, ), the House of Lords had opined that under such circumstances were the acts of the Parliament conflicted with that of the laws of the European Union, the courts in the United Kingdom would apply the European Union laws. Lord Bridge in this case, had stated that this limitation in the sovereignty was voluntarily accepted by the Parliament since even though this limitation was not inherited from the Treaty of Rome, the Parliamentary jurisprudence in the form of the European Communities Act 1972 had well established this principle (Wiesbrock, 2010). Again in the case of Costa v Enel (Costa v Enel, ), the ECJ had opined that whenever there lays a conflict with the European Union laws and the member state laws, the European Union laws should prevail since any subsequent act which is unilateral cannot prevail when it becomes inconsistent with the concepts of the community. Nevertheless, the Treaty of Maastricht, had provided that this does not mean that the Union prevents the stated from creating laws on various subjects such as the environment, the conditions of work or the social policies. The only criterion is that the laws have to be compatible with the Treaty of Rome and have the appropriate jurisdiction considering the Treaty. Under many circumstances there has been many arguments with regard to the fact that the European Union laws taking over the domestic laws of the states, and in this regard it should be reminded that United Kingdom is a member states that the European Union is a collective union of all member state s (Konstadinidis, 1998). Supremacy of the EU Laws The limitation of the domestic laws of the United Kingdom came up with the enactment of the European Communities Act 1972 and this limitation was totally a voluntary decision. In accordance to the conditions of the 1972 Act (Pearson of Rannoch, 2013), it has been clearly stated that the United Kingdom court had a duty that while delivering any judgment to make the European laws prevail with regard to any national laws. The European laws comprise primarily of treaties, regulations and directives. In cases of regulations, these take precedent over the domestic laws of the member stated which are contrary to them. The member state also cannot make any more domestic laws in order to implement the regulations. Directives on the other had are those set of goals that are required to be attained within a certain period. The member states of European Union can make laws for reaching that goal. The Royal Prerogative provides the power to the British government to enter into any international treaty that binds the country (Wall, 1973). Nonetheless, the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty exists in the state which provides that there exists no changes in the rights given to the British citizens and the other individuals and this can be done without the consent of the Parliament. Such rights can be changed only with the help of any Act of Parliament. Hence, the United Kingdom in order to protect itself from the breach of any international obligation is required to include the international laws in the domestic laws of the country through enactments. Conclusion As concluding remarks it can be stated that the UK government is required to override any law that is contrary to the European laws. The British Parliament is still upholding the fact that the European Union laws are supreme. According to the rule of Dicey, in case the Parliament takes the decision to repeal the ECA 1972, it can be done anytime. Theoretically, the laws of the European Union are supreme, but logically it can be stated that the laws of the United Kingdom Parliament is supreme. References Costa v EnelECR p.585. Hartley, T. (2005). The European Union and the Systematic Dismantling of the Common Law of Conflict of Laws.International Comparative Law Quarterly, 54(04). Konstadinidis, S. (1998). Nationality Laws in the European Union. Edited by Bruno Nascimbene [London: Butterworths. 1996. xv + 771 pp. ISBN 88-14-06139-4. 80].International Comparative Law Quarterly, 47(01). Pearson of Rannoch, M. (2013).A bill to repeal the European Communities Act 1972, and to make provision for the Secretary of State to repeal any enactment that has been a consequence of the European Communities Act 1972. London: Stationery Office. R v Secretary of State for Transport, Ex p Factortame NO. 7. Wall, E. (1973).European Communities act 1972. London: Butterworths. Wiesbrock, A. (2010).Legal migration to the European Union. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.